The XS interface is combined with the library to create a new library which can then be either dynamically loaded or statically linked into perl. Before writing XS, read the CAVEATS section below. An XSUB forms the basic unit of the XS interface. After compilation by the xsubpp compiler, each XSUB amounts to a C function definition which will provide easiest way to trade binary options glue between Perl calling conventions and C calling conventions.
The glue code pulls the arguments from the Perl stack, converts these Perl values to the formats expected by a C function, call this C function, transfers the return values of the C function back to Perl. Return values here may be a conventional C return value or any C function arguments that may serve as output parameters. These return values may be passed back to Perl either by putting them on the Perl stack, or by modifying the arguments supplied from the Perl side. The above is a somewhat simplified view of what really happens.
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C function indicates failure, calling different C functions based on numbers and types of the arguments, providing an object-oriented interface, etc. Of course, one could write such glue code directly in C. Perl stack discipline and other such arcana. XS comes to the rescue here: instead of writing this glue C code in long-hand, one can write a more concise short-hand description of what should be done by the glue, and let the XS compiler xsubpp handle the rest. The XS language allows one to describe the mapping between how the C routine is used, and how the corresponding Perl routine is used. It also allows creation of Perl routines which are directly translated to C code and which are not related to a pre-existing C function. The XS compiler is called xsubpp.
This compiler creates the constructs necessary to let an XSUB manipulate Perl values, and creates the glue necessary to let Perl call the XSUB. The compiler uses typemaps to determine how to map C function parameters and output values to Perl values and back. A supplementary typemap may also be needed to handle any special structures and types for the library being linked. Other XS directives and XSUB definitions may follow this line.
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In order to do this, the generated Perl function will assume that its first argument is an object pointer. This XSUB represents a direct translation between C and Perl and so preserves the interface even from Perl. These return values may be passed back to Perl either by putting them on the Perl stack — cONTENT SLIDER Create a responsive, shepherding them away from the congested town centre. The PREINIT: Keyword The PREINIT: keyword allows extra variables to be declared immediately before or after the declarations of the parameters from the INPUT: section are emitted.